During his weekly radio and Internet address Saturday, Obama said thousands of workers could be forced off their jobs and millions of students could face higher loan payments if Congress does not take action over the next week.
Congressional negotiators have been working on a deal to keep interest rates on federal college loans from doubling on July 1. Lawmakers are negotiating a separate transportation funding measure.
In the Republican address, Louisiana Congressman Bill Cassidy said Congress should repeal the Obama administration's health care law if it is not stuck down by the Supreme Court.
Cassidy, who is a doctor, said the measure drives up health care costs and makes it tough for small businesses to hire workers.
The high court is expected to rule soon on the constitutionality of the law.
Some information for this report was provided by AP, AFP and Reuters.